Hank (real forname S.A.) Harral was no newcomer in the music business in 1957 when he launched Caprock records in Big Spring, Tx.
Before recording for his own label, he had releases on T.N.T. and Talent (see elsewhere on Bopping for the label’s story), for which he cut amongst other tunes « Dream Band Boogie » in 1951. He re-recorded the song, in a more rocking way, for Caprock. Backing is provided by Weldon Myrick (steel and lead guitar), Deana Hall (bass), Helen Helso (piano) and Red Stone (rhythm guitar). He had 4 issues on Caprock, the two best being « Tank Town Boogie » and «The D.J. Blues » (102). the latter being a cross between Hillbilly and Rockabilly. Probably the most well known disc to rockabilly collectors is « Tank Town boogie » (104) with « Sweet Memory » on the flip. Right from the intro by Weldon Myrick on guitar and Mr. Burkett on piano, one is treated to a solid piece of rockin’ Texas good time rockabilly. Driven along at a fair pace by Deana Hall’s powerhouse bass lines, it is a classic of its type and one can only be impressed by the sense of enjoyment that was captured. At least 3 takes were made with the third one being issued on a White label LP pictured here. It is a slower, more bluesier treatment. During this time, Hank cut some more rockin’ material, which included « She’s Gone » and an extremely good re-working of « Dream Band boogie », which has the bonus of fine rompin’ piano from Mr. Burkett and Deana Hall again shining on the bass. Harral’s fourth and final release on the label finds him with yet another self penned tribute to his birth state, « Oklahoma Land » (114), a solid bopper with, as usual, excellent back up from the band. The flip is « (I’ve Got A) Mortgage On Your Heart », a song he had co-written with Billy Harbet back in 1953 (Harbet had recorded it then for Starday 119), and it is a good country weeper. Harral also recut a nice version of « Dilly Dally Doodle » which remained unissued at the time.
A number of local artists wanted to get released on the fledging new label, so Caprock 101 was issued by ex-Snyder High School Senior Dixie Rogers, from a town some 35 miles North East of Big Spring. Both « I Will Miss You » and « What Then Will You Say » (Caprock 101) are quick paced country numbers, with Harral’s band providing the backing. Myrick is in particularly good form. She returned with the curiously titled « When The Frost Is On The Punkin » (106). Dixie sounds a little more assured on this one and it is a nice country bopper; the same good uptempo style is carried onto the flipside, « Our First Date ». She had a third release (112), « Only You/World Of Broken Hearts », unheard, so cannot comment.
Hoyle Nix and his West Texas Cowboys made their debut on the label with « My Wasted Love/Kelly Waltz » (103). Ben, the brother of Hoyle, takes the vocal on the former, a slowish tempo’d Western swing number with a nice, uncluttered instrumental on the flip. Hoyle and his band were a well established outfit in the area, having already made records for Star Talent at the turn of the ’50s and for the obscure Queen label in Snyder, Tx (including the excellent « Real Rockin’ Daddy » (to be found under the « WINK LEWIS » entry in this site)) before arriving at Caprock in 1958. He was later to have « Coming Down From Pecos » (105), another instrumental with once again Ben doing the vocals on yet another waltz time flip, « My Mary ». For the final release of 1958, he returned to Ben Hall’s studio and cut probably his strongest coupling on the label with a re-working of « Big Balls In Cowtown » (109), the song that had kicked off his recording career back on the old Star Talent label. Many different stylings lent themselves to Western swing, and one of them was the jazzy big band swing songs and Artie Shaw’s « Summit Ridge Drive » is a perfect composition to show off the band. Taken at a nicely relaxed but swinging pace, Hoyle puts the band through its pace with Mr. Burkett’s piano followed by Dusty Stewart’s fine snappy steel, and Eldon Shamblin‘s lead guitar through to Red Hayes’ fine mandolin pickin’ until, as calls Hoyle out « Now all together boys », and the band sail through to the climax. Hoyle was to go on to record for a number of small Texas labels like Bo-Kay, Winston and Stampede, even having an LP on Oil Patch in the ’70s.
During the end of 1958, Hank Harral was persuaded to handle more recordings as a custom service with the artists providing their own tapes already cut, and of course the material became of a more variable standard. Jimmy Haggett had recorded for Sun, Meteor and Vaden, and was deejaying in Arkansas at the time of his release on Caprock (107), two hillbilly weepers, « Without You/All I Have Is Love ». At the same time Durwood Daly (rn Haddock) was also a DJ in Kermit, Tx, and he had his own Johnny Cash‘s influenced « That’s The Way It Goes » (108)
Ace Ball (Batch) had known Hank for many years prior to his one release on Caprock 110. He had played rhythm guitar on Hank’s Star Talent releases. He was from a farming community south of Portale, NM, and had at least one release on Ace-Hi (his label?). It seems that « I’ve Lost Again/High School Wedding Band » was cut in Nashville. The latter being a typical late ’50s rock ballad, spoiled by the chorus, while the A side is a pleasant enough pop rocker. The totally obscure Jack Tate is on Caprock 111, with « Casanova » being a fast and superior quality bopper. Jack has a rural vocalising and the Sandy Land Playboys create the impression of being together for quite a while.
Jimmy Simpson had a solitary issue on Caprock 113, recorded in Nashville while he was on leave from the oil fields of Alaska. His « Breaker Of My Heart » bops nicely, while « I’m An Oilfield Boy » is set to a quick waltz pace.
Penultimate release is by the unknown Roy New with his Trans-Pecos Melody Boys (115). The song « Blue Tomorrow » is way above average, and Roy is putting his heart and soul in what is possibly his one and only record ever. A slightly slower song, « Heartaches For Sale » on the flip. Finally Caprock 116, Max Alexander coupling « Little Rome /Rock, Rock, Rock Everybody » backed by the Hi-Fi’s Combo, offer two of the best Rock’n’Roll records ever. It is firmly placed in the Bill Haley format, with Max on bass and vocal, until the late Frank Fierro comes in on a honkin’ sax break, before the arrival of a blistering guitar solo. The guitar player could be Cecil McCullough who recorded for Bo-Kay and Manco. Flipside is instrumental. And so the Caprock label came to an end. They had no big national hits, only helping people to either try or further careers.
Label story based on two main sources: first, Phillip J. Tricker, « The Caprock Story » (Roll Street Journal n° 7, Spring 1984); second, notes to White Label LP 8831 « Tank Town Boogie ». Some additions and corrections from Bopping editor. Thanks to Tony Biggs for the loan of label scans.
Carl Lee Perkins (1932-1998) is too well known, and information on him is easily available. Search with your engine or go direct to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Perkins also Rockabilly Hall Of Fame site http://www.rockabillyhall.com/CarlPerkins.html. The Perkins Brothers (Jay B. rhythm guitar, Clayton, bass – later W.S. Holland, d) band began performing in the Covington, Tennessee, area in 1953 and quickly found success with a Hillbilly-boogie type music heavily based on Blues. When they heard in July 1954 Elvis’ Blue Moon Of Kentucky on radio, they decided to go see Sam Phillips to record. First they were cut in Country vein (Turn around, a ballad, being their first disc on Flip 501), because Phillips would not them rivalling with Elvis. With the latter’s departure in November of 1955, they were given freehand, and the result was « Gone gone gone » (Sun 224) in September 1955 : a romping Hillbilly bop, almost a Rockabilly. Three months later, Perkins cut Blue suede shoes, the rest is history…
Smokey Joe (Baugh), vocalist and piano player for the Clyde Leoppard Snearly Ranch Boys (see part 1) had one single (Sun 228, reissued as Sun 393 in the 60s) under his name taken from the 4 sessions he cut on his own between August 1955 and 1956. His style is heavily based on R&B, there is even his raucous voice which reminds one of Fats Waller. « The Signifying Monkey » is a sort of amusing recitation, and a whole lot of then hip animals like monkeys and baboons is cited. The steel-guitar (played by Stan Kesler) is very unobstrusive, and there’s even a trumpet on the B-side « Listen To Me » ! All in all a record on the border of Hillbilly and R&B, the sort of thing Phillips was still looking for, even after the departure of Presley and the crossover success of « Blue Suede Shoes ». He cut similar nature material left in the can (and later issued in Europe) with tracks like « Hula Bop » and « She’s A Woman ».
Little is known about Maggie Sue Wimberly who went to Sun in October 1954 and cut a solitary single (Sun 229) : « How Long/Daydreams Come true ». In the early part of 1954, Sam Phillips had turned down Bud Deckleman and his song (co-penned by the team Quinton Claunch/Bill Cantrell) « Daydreamin’ ». Deckleman had been to Lester Bihari of Meteor and had a huge hit with this record. Phillips tried to catch up on the success and recorded a follow-up, « Daydreams Come True » by Wimberly, which came nowhere. One of the rarest Sun records ever…A fine Hillbilly weeper though.
Charlie Feathers (1932-1998) is also well known. See his official site : http://www.charliefeathers.com/ for a very detailed biography. He arrived at Sun from Mississipi in 1955 and recorded with the duet Quinton Claunch (fiddle)/Stan Kesler (steel) one bopping fast novelty « Peepin’ Eyes » (Flip 503). He claimed later to have directed Elvis Presley’s late Sun sessions, and actually wrote and gave him I Forgot To Remember To Forget (Sun 223) ; Sam Phillips wanted Feathers as a Country singer, and he was not allowed to sing anything else than the great « I’ve Been Deceived » (Flip 503) or the beautiful Defrost Your Heart (Sun 231). Even his demos of Rockabilly songs (Bottle To The Baby, complete with hiccups, later re-cut for King in July 1956 ; or Honky Tonk Kind) were rejected by Phillips. That is why he came, through his brother-in-law, in touch with Meteor Records, and cut the classic Rockabilly « Get With It/Tongue Tied Jill » on April 1rst, 1956.
Jimmy Haggett was inspired by the phrasing of Jim Reeves, and took (without knowing it) a LukeMcDaniels’ song, « No More » (from 1952), although with different lyrics. Flip was « They Call Our Love A Sin » (Sun 236). The record had sold 448 copies a year after release, and the songs are pretty tame. Shortly after, Haggett tried his hands at Rockabilly but felt uneasy and hired a front singer to replace him. But that’s another story.
Warren Smith (1932-1981) is well documented too. See : http://www.rockabillyhall.com/WarrenSmith.html. He went from Mississipi as lead singer of Clyde Leoppard Snearly Ranch Boys and was presented to Sam Phillips early in 1956 by Johnny Cash who gave him his very first song: Rock’n’Roll Ruby (Sun 239) – which George Jones claims to have written, instead of Cash. Anyhow the demo of it by Cash was published in U.K. in the 80s. But Smith was an ably Country singer – the best he heard at Sun, to quote Phillips – and his renderings are quite good flavored Rockabilly/Hillbilly Bop songs : I’d Rather Be Safe Than Sorry (Sun 239), Black Jack David (Sun 250), So Long I’m Gone (Sun 268), Tonight Will Be The Last Night (unissued at the time) or later effort Goodbye Mr. Love (Sun 314). Disappointed by a constant rivality with Jerry Lee Lewis, he moved to Hollywood and Liberty Records in 1959 as a Country singer and succeed a little.
The Miller Sisters (Elsie & Jo) were a local Memphis act, discovered by Phillips in 1955. Elsie Jo Miller and Mildred Wages did originate from Elvis’ hometown, Tupelo, Mississipi ; they were offered to record for Sun at 5 occasions between March 1955 and July 1957, so Sam Phillips must have been confident enough in them as a duet. First they cut a passable Hillbilly weeper on Flip 504 (Someday You Will Pay), backed by the then cream of Sun studio musicians : Stan Kesler on guitar, Quinton Claunch on steel-guitar, Bill Cantrell on fiddle, Marcus Van Story on bass ; even Charlie Feathers used spoons on this tune ! Later in 1956 they embarked on the Rockabilly bandwagon and cut a little classic, Ten Cats Down (Sun 255), with the accompaniment of members of Clyde Leoppard Snearly Ranch Boys, aptly augmented by the sax of Ace Cannon. They were also involved as vocalists on Cast King 1956/1957 session (originally unissued) which produced the beautiful « Can’t find time to pray ». They did disappear after 1957.
Slim Rhodes (Ethell Cletus ‘Slim’ Rhodes) (see part 1) had a Hillbilly boogie romper on Sun 238 with « Gonna Romp and Stomp » ; he had well adapted from the wild sounds of Hillbilly Bop instrumental « Skunk Hollow Boogie » (Gilt-Edge 5015, recorded at Sun in July 1950) to the new trends of 1956. « Romp… » is still Hillbilly Bop in essence, but the pace is Rockabilly (note the classic guitar solo), as is their next effort (Sun 256) : Take And Give/Do What I Do (vocal Dusty Rhodes). Two very fine Sun records ! Last recording of Rhodes for Phillips was in 1958, and of far lesser interest (I’ve never been so blue), hence unissued then.
Billy Riley (Pocahontas, Ark., 1933 ; dead August 2, 2009). Born to a poor sharecropping clan, Riley developed a passion for blues and learned to pick guitar watching the older black musicians his family worked alongside. Although he made some early appearances performing on local radio, Riley’s career took shape after he was discharged from the Army in the mid-’50s. Moving to Memphis, Riley soon hooked up with a crew of fledgling country musicians that included « Cowboy » Jack Clement. He and his truck driver partner, Slim Wallace, founded the tiny Fernwood label in a South Memphis garage and cut Riley’s debut recordings, « Trouble Bound » and « Think Before Your Go« (still unissued today). Clement took the tapes to Sam Phillips over at Sun Records so he could master a single. Impressed by what he heard, Phillips ended up hiring Clement to work at Sun, and signed Riley. Hence « Trouble Bound/Rock With Me Baby » (Sun 245). Riley and his group – which included drummer J.M. Van Eaton and guitarist Roland Janes — would also become the de facto house band at Sun, providing the backing on numerous hits. Another Hillbilly song recorded at a Rockabilly pace is the underrated « I Want You Baby » (Sun 260), overshadowed by the A-side which made Riley famous until today, the classic « Flyin’ Saucer Rock’n’Roll ».
Malcolm Yelvington and band, 1956
Malcolm Yelvington (see part 1) had well adapted to 1956 trends with his unique brand of Western Swing/Hillbilly Bop for a February 1956 session which produced the uptempo « Rockin’ With My Baby » (full of reference to then R&R hits) and the slower, much more interesting « It’s Me Baby » (Sun 246). Later Yelvington recorded mainly mainstream Country, always flavored of Western swing : tracks (unissued then) like « Trumpet » or « Goodbye Marie », to be found on 1990’s Bear Family compilation « Sun – The Country years » 10-LP boxset. It also included a different version of « Yakety Yak » to that Meteor Records released in 1956.
It was not before October 1956 that Sam Phillips (too busy cutting Rockabilly and Rock’n’Roll sessions) recorded more Hillbilly, this time with Ernie Chaffin. The latter went from Biloxi, MS. and had had records from 1954 on Fine and Hickory labels. « His style was as unique as Johnny Cash’s : he depended on a percussive, repeated rhythmic pattern and minimal instrumentation. Unlike Cash’s work, however, Chaffin’s songs (most often composed by his acoustic guitar player Murphy ‘Pee Wee’ Maddux) were highly melodic and his voice had considerable range. While the songs were lyrically more conventional than the stark lonesome ballads of Cash, Chaffin’s songs drew much of their power from unusual and arresting chord changes. » (Hank Davis) Between October 1956 and June 1958, Chaffin had 7 Sun sessions, resulting in 4 Sun singles, the best being the first two, and the most memorable and accomplished tracks being « Feelin’ Low » (Sun 262) and «Laughin’ And Jokin’ » (Sun 275). Both are on the border of Hillbilly Bop, and announce the future Country music of the late 50s/early 60s, when Rock’n’Roll and Rockabilly were integrated into it. All in all Ernie Chaffin recorded 15 songs for Sun, and they are all on the Bear Family boxset .
Ernie Chaffin 'left)
Sam Phillips made relatively few mistakes in his choices, but after the discovery of Cast King (Joseph Dudley King) tapes in the Sun vaults, it is surprising why he didn’t release ANYTHING by him, like another mystery, the now famous Jimmy Wages. Maybe too busy with Rock’n’Roll bands ! Cast King cut one convincing religious narration (« Can’t Find Time To Pray ») in 1956 with the Miller Sisters as backing vocals, but the most interesting track was to come in June or July 1957 with « When You Stop Loving me » : « It is a splendid song and must have stood a fair chance of success. Although neither the composition nor the performance are really polished, the end product is quite spectacular (…) Instrumentally it’s a gem, featuring standout steel-guitar work and some nice dobro. » (Hank Davis/Colin Escott). It’s a « Country waltz beautifully sung, which stands alongside Sun’s finest Country records and his non-appearance is a mystery. »
Mack Self was a real Country singer, and although he tried a variety of other styles when at Sun, he always retained a country purity in his vocals and his band was never going on rough edges. He had 5 sessions between 1955/1956 and 1959 and only had two singles (from which one on Phillips International), the other being (Sun 273) « Easy To Love/Everyday » . The solitary Sun release had very little chance of success in 1957, and actually sounded anachronic for the times being. Beautifully sung Country ballads ; and Phillips allowed Self to sing that, when he released at the same period pounding rockers by the likes of Carl Perkins, Tommy Blake, Wade & Dick, Ray Harris ! But a real treasure was unearthed in the 1990s on the aforementioned Bear Family boxset : Self had recorded a Hillbilly session in 1955/1956, complete with steel-guitar and fiddle. « Easy To Love » is plaintive, and the fiddle of Bill Cantrell well to the fore. The same session gave us a near-Rockabilly Hillbilly Bop, « Goin’ Crazy », complete with slapping bass (Jimmy Evans – is he the same guy as the one later on Rivermont and « The Joint Is Really Jumpin’ » rasping piano rocker ?).
We came to an end with the Hillbilly Bop sides cut by Elvis Presley. Actually he cut at least 8 Hillbilly sides in his own unmistakingly style, and 5 went their way as B-sides of his Sun singles. They are too well-known, but listen to them closely as Hillbilly Bop sides…Johnny Cash was also near Hillbilly, although he never used steel-guitar neither a fiddle – but his style was really his own and did in fact owe very little to Hillbilly…Do not forget The Rhythm Rockers (Sun 250) and « Fiddle Bop/Juke Box, Help me find my baby » – actually Hardrock Gunter. Phillips leased them from Emperor Records, it wasn’t his production.
Credits: all the color pictures that bear « The Country Years » do come from the Bear Family boxset BCD 15211 « Sun – The Country Years »
All label pictures do come from www.rockincountrystyle.com